Milk and yogurt: Limit whole milk to 300 ml daily. Low-fat and skim milk and low-fat yogurt will lower blood cholesterol levels. The use of non-fat or low-fat milk represents a significant saving in calories, particularly for the overweight. Infants should drink whole milk where milk is the mainstay of the diet. Buttermilk is usually low-fat, and so are flavored milks, but the latter have a high sugar content.
Non-dairy coffee whiteners: These are usually composed of at least 35 percent fat plus sugars.
Ice cream: This contains a minimum of 10 percent milk fat; use moderately.
Cream: This has a high saturated fat content and is best avoided. Calorie counts reflect the fat content. Sour light cream is lowest, but also best avoided.
Non-dairy cream substitute: This is high in saturated fat; high in calories.
Limit to one lean serve daily. Use only lean cuts of meat. Lamb, pork, ham and bacon should be truly lean.
Avoid fatty meat products such as sausages and cold cuts. Limit offal meats, such as kidney, brains and liver as they are extremely high in cholesterol.
Cooking methods can reduce saturated fats. Grilling allows fat to run off. Allow stews to settle and skim off the surface fat.
The white meat of chicken, turkey and rabbit has less fat than other meats. Duck and goose are high in fat and should be limited.
Fish provide excellent nutrition and are highly recommended. The fat of fish has a significant polyunsaturated content. Some shellfish are not as high in cholesterol as once thought - oysters have half the cholesterol of meat, poultry; prawns have a high content.
The current average of four eggs a week is reasonable. If blood cholesterol is high, limit yourself to one or two eggs a week. Cholesterol is only in the yolk. Egg white has no fat or cholesterol and may be used freely.
Cereals are low in fat and cholesterol. Cereals rich in bran and fiber are best. Muesli is also suitable, but limit if over sight. Oatmeal may be capable of lowering blood cholesterol levels.
Bread is recommended, as it contains little fat and no cholesterol. Wholemeal breads are best. Also ideal for snacks instead of foods high in fat and sugar. Crispbreads, pumpernickel and Lebanese flat breads are also suitable. Population groups eating three to five times more bread than Western populations have much less heart disease. Wholemeal bread is a significant source of protein, B vitamins and fiber.
Peanut butter and Tahini (sesame seed paste) are suitable spreads as they are high in mono and polyunsaturated fats and contain no cholesterol. But limit if overweight. While containing negligible fat or cholesterol, jam, marmalade and honey are usually high in sugar, and yeast extract spreads are high in salt. Their use is not encouraged, especially among the young.
Soy beans, lentils, baked beans and dried peas contain negligible saturated fat or cholesterol. Certain fibers and other components may help to lower blood cholesterol levels. Excellent nutrition with good protein, vitamin and mineral content. Canned baked beans in tomato sauce have minimal fat, no cholesterol and are recommended.
Nuts and seeds have good levels of protein, vitamins, minerals and rough age. They have no cholesterol and most have high mono or polyunsaturated fat content. Coconut and roasted macadamias have a high saturated fat content and should be limited. Walnuts have a high polyunsaturated fat content.
Products using lentil beans, nuts, seeds and TVP (textured vegetable protein) generally provide balanced nutrition without cholesterol or much saturated fat; therefore are recommended.
Vegetables and fruit have no cholesterol and negligible fat. The fat of avocado pears and olives is largely monounsaturated and does not raise blood cholesterol levels. Certain fibers of fruit and vegetables may help to lower blood cholesterol. Eat fruit and vegetables regularly for their vitamins and roughage. Slimmers should avoid using fats and oils with them. Use minimal water for maximum vitamin retention.
These contain no saturated fat or cholesterol and can help control blood cholesterol levels when used as a part-replacement for fatty meats. Use polyunsaturated fats if necessary, but choose cooking methods requiring the least possible fat if overweight.
Use margarine and cooking oils. Safflower, sunflower, corn and soybean oils are suitable polyunsaturated oils. Sesame seed oil is less highly polyunsaturated, but useful to enhance the flavor of other oils.
Olive oil and peanut oil are mainly monounsaturated and have little effect on blood cholesterol levels. Suitable in moderation, but best replaced by polyunsaturated oils.
Coconut oil or fat is largely saturated, so avoid it.
Butter and lard are largely saturated and therefore best avoided.
Vegetable fats and oils, often used commercially, contain significant amounts of saturated fat. Limit foods containing large amounts of this fat, such as biscuits, cakes, pastries and potato chips.
NOTE: If you are overweight, minimize the use of ALL types of fats and oils. Even polyunsaturated fats and oils are high in calories.
Most commercial salad dressings contain polyunsaturated vegetable oils, particularly French and Italian oil dressings. The fat/oil content varies from brand to brand. Calorie counts are usually a guide to fat content.
Most commercial sauces have a low fat content with little saturated fat, for example: tomato-based sauces, chili sauce, chutneys and pickles. Tartare, sea food cocktail and cheese sauces contain significant amounts of fat and should be used only in moderation.
Most commercial soups contain less than 2 percent fat in the made-up product - hence minimal amounts of saturated fat and cholesterol. Even "pea and ham" and "cream" soups contain less than 3 percent fat. At home, use skim milk.
Most commercial biscuits and cakes are high in saturated fat. Doughnuts, pastry-based cakes and pies, cheese cakes, coconut slices, etc. contain large amounts of fat. Best to make your own biscuits and cakes with polyunsaturated fats and yolk-free mix.
Chocolates, potato crisps, cheesy-type snacks, savory biscuits and some "health confectionery" bars are high in saturated fats and calories.
Sugar, soft drinks and cordials can promote overweight and elevated blood fats if used excessively. If sweetness is required use artificial sweeteners and sugar-free drinks. Drink more water.
Suitable in moderation, but avoid excessive amounts.
The fast-food industry has been criticized for promoting an eating style that exacerbates the already poor eating habits of many people.
It doesn't hurt to have the occasional fast food meal, but eating them regularly, several times a week, can be a matter for concern. This applies both to meals from fast-food outlets and to similar types of meals bought from the supermarket freezer and prepared at home.
The concern is not only with the nutritional content of the meal - many are high in saturated fat, sugar and salt - but also with the way this type of eating influences our attitudes to food, and even more important, the attitudes of our children.
Comments are closed for this blog post